The development of the industrial sector in the world continues to increase every year in spurring economic growth, especially in the textile industry. This increase has an impact on increasing the amount of textile dye waste. One way to overcome textile dye waste is to utilize TiO2 modified clay (TiO2/clay) with degradation-adsorption techniques. In the last few decades, mineral clay modification is very important as an alternative in material development because it has various potentials to be developed such as catalysts, adsorb media, and ion exchange. TiO2 can act as an ion insertion medium (intercalation) thereby increasing pores and surface area. This review describes the properties of clay, photocatalytic properties of TiO2, surface characteristics, and photocatalytic/adsorption method of TiO2/clay composites. Various types of minerals have been inserted between the clay mineral layers by a variety of different methods and applications, such as rectorite, montmorillonite, kaolinite, vermiculite, and halloysite. In addition, the insertion of metal doping in the photocatalytic/adsorption material can also improve the performance of each of the dyes tested.