Technology Reports of Kansai University (ISSN: 04532198) is a monthly peer-reviewed and open-access international Journal. It was first built in 1959 and officially in 1975 till now by kansai university, japan. The journal covers all sort of engineering topic, mathematics and physics. Technology Reports of Kansai University (TRKU) was closed access journal until 2017. After that TRKU became open access journal. TRKU is a scopus indexed journal and directly run by faculty of engineering, kansai university.
Technology Reports of Kansai University (ISSN: 04532198) is a peer-reviewed journal. The journal covers all sort of engineering topic as well as mathematics and physics. the journal's scopes are
in the following fields but not limited to:
Globally due to the urbanization and the population growth in the urban centers, the problems of short come of resources, economics, and the need for high density dwellings arise. The idea of high density housing in the form of small communities arise as a solution to overcome the short come of dwellings and to provide shelter for great numbers of people on a smaller areas of land. This trend has shown up in Kurdistan region of Iraq from the beginning of 2000s, which makes an important topic of interest and necessary to be investigated to guarantee the life and wellbeing of the residents living in these communities, and this is why this paper is trying to analyze the spatial planning of the layouts and the use of public spaces in these communities (Darwaza city as a case study), because the use of public spaces mainly affects the social interaction of the residents, and the vitality of these spaces and positive interaction affects the well-being and psychology of the residents. Many fields of psychology, social sciences, and many urban researchers tried to investigate and understand the relation between built environment and human through many theoretical concepts, and evaluative methods to draw conclusion that promote the use of these public spaces. This paper tried to use space syntax as a theoretical framework and an analytical method using Depthmap program, because it is proven that space syntax is able to analyze quantitatively the relationship between people’s behavior and spatial configuration, and this study tries to overlap the results of people use of space obtained from direct observation and the analysis of the spatial configuration obtained from space syntax. The analysis shows interesting results of people’s use of space and correlations between space use and syntactical variables.
DMF is a common solvent using for HKUST-1 synthesis in solvothermal process. As solvent it is commonly believed that DMF to a certain degree will play role on the quality of final product. This research explores the possibility to enhance HKUST-1 quality by optimizing the usage of DMF during synthesis process. The experiment was performed by preparing solvent that consist of aquadest, ethanol, and DMF. Three samples (A,B, and C) were prepared using DMF that has volume fraction of 0.222; 0.333; and 0.444, respectively. Synthesis was done by heating the autoclave reactor at 100°C for 24 hours. The final products are prussian blue solid material. Sample analysis was performed to examine the properties of the final product. First, SEM analyis was performed and the microstructure of bipyramide crystal was observed. This structure is resembles the HKUST-1. XRD test also confirms that all the samples have peaks at around 6.70°, 9.48°, and 11.62° that is unique for HKUST-1. Additional process, i.e. heating process is done on one of the samples as the representative of the others (sample B) to examine if there is remaining solvent that is trapped. Not all samples are checked for activation process because all samples show similarities during SEM and XRD test. Sample B is then heated at 29°C (B1), 75°C (B2), 115°C (B3), 155° (B4), and 170°C (B5), respectively. The result from SEM and XRD test showed that sample B1, B2, B3, B4, and B5 could endure additional heating process and the remaining solvent that is trapped on the pore is succesfuly removed. Another test is BET adsorption measurement. The measurement concludes that samples A, B, and C are fall within microporous material category because they have pore diameter less than 2 nm and the pore diameter is getting smaller as the DMF volume fraction increases. Specific pore volume and specific surface area calculation also reveal that samples tend to have higher specific pore volume and specific surface area when DMF volume fraction increases. From the result of this experiment it can be concluded that DMF volume fraction has significant impact in controlling the properties of HKUST-1 that is produced during solvothermal synthesis process.